Researchers around the world are developing more than 135 vaccines against COVID-19. Vaccines typically require years of research and testing before reaching the clinic, but scientists are racing to produce a safe and effective vaccine by next year. There are four different approaches to developing a successful vaccine. Some vaccines use one or more of COVID-19’s own genes to create an immune response, while others use a virus to deliver COVID-19 genes into cells to have the same effect. These are called “viral vector vaccines.” A third approach is to use part of the COVID-19 virus (a protein fragment) which can also switch on the body’s immune system. The fourth approach is to take the COVID-19 virus and deactivate it so that it produces an immune response but does no damage. Only time will tell which approach will be the most successful.


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